Guide to AP® Biology

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Evolution and the Diversity of Life

Why are we so similar to monkeys? Are birds mini-dinosaurs? Explore how life originated on Earth and how it has diversified over time. Apply evolutionary concepts to investigative lab data as you prepare for the AP® Biology exam.

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Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Evolution and Genetic Change

Discover how evolution occurs via natural selection and the variations that proliferate throughout changing populations.
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Natural selectionFree

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Phenotypic variationsFree

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Evolutionary changeFree

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Biological evolution

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Connections in Ancestral History

Dive into the shared conserved processes and features seen in organisms today.
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Drivers of Evolution

Delve into how organisms continue to evolve in constantly changing environments.
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Speciation and extinction

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Reproductive isolation

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Evolving populations

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The Origins of Life

Learn about the scientific processes and evidence that explain life's origins.
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Investigative Lab 1: Artificial Selection

Determine how artificial selection can be used to promote different phenotypes.
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Investigative Lab 2: Mathematical Modeling - Hardy Weinberg

Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate genotype and allele frequencies.
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Investigative Lab 3: DNA Sequences and Evolutionary Relationships

Analyze DNA sequences and other representations of data to determine evolutionary relationships.
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Extra Practice

Review evolutionary concepts and definitions.
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Requirements of Biological Systems

What biological processes are necessary for us to survive? All organisms have efficient, finely-tuned processes operating within each cell. While you study for the AP® Biology exam, investigate the components of biological systems from the cellular to organism level.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Free Energy and Matter

Free energy and matter are critical for organisms during growth, reproduction, and homeostasis.
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Free energy input

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Biological processes

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Matter exchange

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Cell Membranes and Homeostasis

Examine how cells develop and conserve their internal environments.
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Selective permeability

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Membrane transport

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Eukaryotic cells

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Feedback Mechanisms

Delve into how organisms utilize feedback mechanisms for internal processes.
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Growth and Dynamic Homeostasis

Learn about how environmental changes affect growth and homeostasis.
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Biotic and abiotic interactions

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Homeostatic mechanisms

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Homeostatic disruptions

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Chemical defenses

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Temporal Regulation and Coordination

Answer questions about how organisms require temporal regulation and coordination in order to grow and maintain homeostasis.
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Investigative Lab 4: Diffusion & Osmosis

Uncover the importance of diffusion and osmosis in biological processes.
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Investigative Lab 5: Photosynthesis

Investigate how photosynthesis occurs and how changes in the environment affect its outcomes.
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Investigative Lab 6: Cellular Respiration

Interpret data in investigations involving cellular respiration and its effects.
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Extra Practice

Review key concepts about biological processes and how organisms interact with their environments.
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Biological Information

What does "It's in your genes!" really mean? Learn about how DNA is inherited and how genetic information is expressed throughout the life cycle of organism. Examine cellular processes including reproduction, genetic expression, and intracellular communication. These topics are frequently tested on the AP® Biology exam.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Heritable Information and Continuity of Life

Discover how DNA is responsible for passing down genetic information.
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DNA and RNA

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Transferring heritable information

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Inheritance patterns

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Unusual inheritance patterns

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Mechanisms for Expressing Genetic Information

Scrutinize the cellular and molecular processes that are necessary for expressing genes.
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Genetic Expression

Study the molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to genetic variation.
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Genotype changes

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Genetic variation

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Viral replication

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Cell Communication

Evaluate cellular communication processes and their impacts on organismal organization and responses.
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Common features

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Communication processes

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Signal transduction pathways

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Changes in signal transduction pathways

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Genetic Processing and Variation

Inspect how transferring both heritable and nonheritable information can lead to genetic variation.
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Investigative Lab 7: Cell Division

Dive into laboratory investigations involving cellular division, cytokinesis, and how these work in growth and repair.
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Investigative Lab 8: Bacterial Transformation

Look into how bacterial transformations occur in the lab, and analyze data from investigations.
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Investigative Lab 9: Restriction Enzyme Analysis

Review data from restriction enzyme experiments to discover how these enzymes can be manipulated and utilized.
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Interactions Between Biological Systems

Discover biological interactions, from "conversations" between cells within the smallest organism to interactions between the diverse species in the rainforest. Understand how these interactions are influenced and shaped by diversity, from the molecular to the macro level, on this last section of the AP® Biology exam.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Biological System Interactions

Review interactions from cells to populations, including subcellular components and environmental interactions.
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Biological molecules

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Subcellular components

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Specialized cells

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Complex properties

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Communities and populations

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Environmental interactions

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Competition and Cooperation in Biological Systems

Dig into how how competition and cooperation interplay from intermolecular interactions all the way to global ecosystems.
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Intermolecular interactions

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Cooperative interactions

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Species distribution and abundance

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Local and global ecosystems

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Natural Diversity Affects Interactions

Investigate factors that include molecular variation and environmental causes that contribute to and increase natural diversity.
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Molecular variation

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Environmental factors

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Population dynamics

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Species diversity

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Investigative Lab 10: Energy Dynamics

Interpret data from labs that study energy use and processes in cells to ecosystems.
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Investigative Lab 11: Transpiration

Answer questions regarding transpiration rates in various experiments.
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Investigative Lab 12: Fruit Fly Behavior

Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model organism whose studies have led to many conclusions regarding animal behavior.
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Investigative Lab 13: Enzyme Activity

Uncover how enzymes work to speed up and affect cellular processes.
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Extra Practice

Review how everything from molecules to populations interact with each other and the environment.
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