Guide to AP® European History

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1450 to 1648

Investigate this dynamic 200-year period by exploring the tectonic shifts that led to a more secular, global, and politically centralized Europe.

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Introduction to Humanism

Explore how the dominant European worldview shifted its ideological basis from religious authority to science and empiricism during the the 16th and 17th centuries.
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Classical texts

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Printing

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The arts

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Science

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Political Centralization

Examine how political development during the early modern period moved away from the feudalism of the past and became increasingly centralized, meritocratic, and secular.
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Secularization

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Diplomacy and warfare

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Distribution of authority

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Religious Plurality

Explore how an emerging religious pluralism and reform to the Roman Catholic Church directly challenged notions of European unity.
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Protestant Reformation

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The Catholic Reformation

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Challenged political authority

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Religious wars

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Age of Exploration

Analyze how advancements in maritime technology fostered European colonization in Africa and North America and the establishment of maritime empires.
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European Society

Delve into the birth of capitalism and the creation of finance and banking industries, which shook European social structures while preserving traditional hierarchy and status.
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Social patterns

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Agriculture

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Population shifts

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Family structure

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Popular culture

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1648 to 1815

How did a period defined by revolutions (in agriculture, governance, religion, science, and commerce) upend European traditions and give rise to a new world order?

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Statemaking

Interrogate how absolute monarchies dominated the European political order during this period and inspired massive resistance throughout Europe and the Atlantic world.
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Absolute monarchy

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Alternatives to absolutism

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European diplomacy

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The French Revolution

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Napoleon Bonaparte

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European Commerce

Analyze the transformation of European commerce during this period, including the creation of a worldwide economic network, new protections of property rights, and technological advancements in agriculture and manufacturing.
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Market economy

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Industrial and consumer revolutions

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Commercial rivalries

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The Enlightenment

Explore how Europeans applied the principles of the Scientific Revolution to social and political theory and human affairs.
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Challenges to tradition

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Popularization of enlightenment ideas

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Challenges to absolutism and mercantilism

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Impact on religion

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The arts

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Challenges to the Enlightenment

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Changes in Everyday Life

Investigate how everyday life for the average European was profoundly shaped by 16th-17th century innovations and accompanying medical, technological, environmental, and demographic changes.
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Population Growth

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Standards of Living

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Urbanization

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1815 to 1914

Industrialization impacted much more than just the economy in Europe. Explore how an uneven process of industrialization reshaped longstanding social arrangements.

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The Industrial Revolution

Analyze Great Britain’s leading role in ushering the transition from an agricultural to industrial economy.
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Great Britain leads industrialization

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Spread of industrialization

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Second Industrial Revolution

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Everyday Life During the Industrial Revolution

Explore how industrialization fostered the development of new socio-economic classes, widespread urbanization, and heightened consumerism.
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Social classes

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Social dislocation

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Family structure

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Heightened consumerism

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Famine, debt and land shortages

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Responses to Industrialization

Examine the rise of nationalism, liberalism, and socialism, along with major social reform movements, as major political and ideological responses to industrialization.
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Ideological responses

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Government responses

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Political movements and social organization

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The Rise of Nationalism

Explore efforts by economic and political elites, such as the Concert of Europe, to preserve European power and unity in an era of nationalism and revolution.
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The Concert of Europe

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Shift in European balance of power

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Tensions Between the Great Powers

Explore how European colonialism, driven by a desire for new markets and a belief in cultural and racial superiority, increased diplomatic tensions among the Great Powers and fostered a new age of empire.
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New imperialism

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Industrial and technological developments

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European Cultural Changes

Investigate how the 19th and early 20th century was a time of eclipse. While the revolutions of 1848 and the emergence of Darwin fostered a materialist and rationalist worldview, impressionist art and philosophical movements such as existentialism questioned the existence of objective truth.
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Romanticism

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Realism and materialism

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Modernism

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1914 to the Present

How did total warfare, economic collapse, and nuclear proliferation fuel new political debates over the relationship between citizens and the state and trigger geopolitical conflict between European powers?

CompletionAccuracy

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Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

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Total War And Political Instability

Investigate the circumstances under which Europe succumbed to “total war,” expanding and mechanizing the tools and the theaters of war and leading to longstanding global instability.
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World War I

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World War II

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The Cold War

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Economic and political integration

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Nationalist and separatist movements

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Decolonization

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Ideological Differences

Explore how the devastation of total war opened space for competing ideologies, and analyze how the warring forces of liberalism, communism, and fascism served as both a beacon of hope and a tool of repression in the pre, inter, and post-war periods.
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The Russian revolution

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Rise of fascism

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The Great Depression

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The welfare state

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Eastern Europe

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Intellectual And Cultural Movements

Explore 20th-century European history through the prism of its great thinkers and artists, analyzing their contributions to movements that distorted, satirized, or fused existing modes of thought.
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Post-war anxiety

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Science and technology

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Role of religion

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The arts

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Everyday Life

Discover how the upheaval of two world wars, rapid industrialization, and mass migration impacted Europeans' social structures and cultural identity in the 20th and 21st centuries.
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Women

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New voices

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