Guide to AP® Psychology

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History and Approaches

Psychology, the study of the mind and behavior, has a long past but a short history. Learn about its origins and review different historical approaches to the study of thought and behavior, from Piaget's theory of development to Freud's views on the id, ego, and superego.

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Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

History of PsychologyFree

Learn about the historical timeline and significant​ contributions to the field of psychology.
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ApproachesFree

Explore the various theoretical approaches to analyzing behavior along with the strengths and limitations of each.
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Subfields in Psychology

From developmental to social, dive into the different domains of psychology as you deepen your understanding of each subfield.
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Major Historical Figures

Meet Charles Darwin and Ivan Pavlov as you get up close and personal with each of the major contributors to the field of psychology.
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Research Methods

Like all branches of science, psychology depends on research. Assess your understanding of research methods and data analysis, paying special attention to how researchers conduct studies and draw conclusions. Deepen your understanding of the role of ethics in research and learn how methods have evolved since the early days of the discipline.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Experimental Research

Manipulate variables and test your hypotheses as you deepen your understanding of experimental research and its applications in psychology.
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Correlational Research

See how variables influence each other as you explore the implications of correlational studies in psychological research.
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Clinical Research

Take a closer look at the role clinical research plays in the development of new treatments and medications.
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Statistics

Brush up on your math skills as you review the statistical methods used in analyzing psychological research.
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Descriptive

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Inferential

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Ethics in Research

Understand the moral implications of research for a field that is heavily dependent on the involvement of human and animal subects.
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Biological Bases of Behavior

Examine the neurobiological foundations of behavior and how these inform all our psychological processes. This theme focuses on genetics, the old question of nature versus nurture, and the organization of the endocrine and nervous systems. Explore how the modern nervous system evolved across millenia to dictate our behaviors today.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Physiological Techniques

Distinguish the types and uses of various physiological techniques in the research and treatment of individuals.
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Neuroanatomy

Identify systems of the brain both at a cellular and structural level.
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Functional Organization of the Nervous System

Deepen your understanding of how nervous system structures interconnect.
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Neural Transmission

Lights, camera, action potential! Discover chemical signaling at the neuronal level.
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Neuroplasticity

Learn about the changes that take place in the brain throughout the life course of an individual.
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Endocrine System

Discover the complex role that chemical signaling plays through individual functioning and development.
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Genetics

Discover genetic implications on behavior.
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Evolutionary Psychology

Identify how heredity and the environment influence an individual.
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Major Historical Figures

Recount important historical figures and their contributions to understanding the biological bases of behavior.
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Sensation and Perception

You smell, hear, taste, touch, and sense heat on a daily basis, but do you know how your body perceives these sensory experiences? How do you know your experience is accurate? Test what you know about the sense organs — and how they often fool us.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Thresholds and Signal Detection Theory

Quantify patterns of signaling in sensory processing.
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Thresholds

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Signal detection theory

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Sensory Mechanisms

Identify systems of information processing.
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Attention

Explore the importance of attention in behavior.
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Perceptual Processes

Discover the mechanisms associated with perception.
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Major Historical Figures

Identify important historical researcher and their contributions to our current understanding of sensation and perception.
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States of Consciousness

Explore different states of consciousness. How does your sleeping mind differ from your waking mind? What happens to the brain under hypnosis? What are the short and long-term impacts of mind-altering drugs? How do we perceive reality when in these different states of consciousness?

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Sleep and Dreaming

Deepen your understanding of consciousness as you explore the realms of sleep and dreaming.
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Hypnosis

Identify the role and uses of hypnotic practices.
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Learning

What is learning? How do humans and animals learn? What strategies can we exploit to see results, and how can we create permanent changes in behavior based on experience? From observational learning to positive and negative reinforcement, there are multiple avenues and processes of learning.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Classical Conditioning

Develop a clear understanding of how and why certain stimuli evoke specific behaviors.
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Operant Conditioning

Discover how reinforcement and punishment influence learned behaviors.
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Cognitive Processes

Explore how individual experiences attribute to the acquisition of knowledge.​
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Biological Factors

Recognize the impact of biological predispositions on learning.
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Social Learning

Identify how social context influences learning processes.
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Major Historical Figures

Familiarize yourself with the psychologists who made tremendous contributions to what we know about learning today.
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Cognition

The human mind undergoes many complex processes to ensure that we can interpret our world, problem-solve, and create. Practice your understanding of how humans think, remember, make decisions, and address problems, and understand why humans are so prone to errors in problem-solving and judgment.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Memory

From short-term to procedural, compare and contrast the various forms of memory.
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Language

Determine the role that cognition, culture, ​and heredity play in the development of language.
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Thinking

Discover how humans process information and how this affects idea formation and decision making.
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Problem Solving and Creativity

Identify the characteristics and factors that influence problem solving and creativity.
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Major Historical Figures

Recognize important​ contributors to the field of cognitive psychology.
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Motivation and Emotion

What drives people to engage in certain behaviors and refrain from others? How do we experience emotions, and what purpose do they serve? Learn about the biological, social, and cultural factors that affect motivation and emotion, and understand one aspect of why we do the things we do.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Biological Bases

Discover the underlying biological principles which influence motivation and emotion.
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Theories of Motivation

Compare and contrast the different theories of motivation, including the drive reduction theory and the arousal theory.
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Hunger, Thirst, Sex, and Pain

Examine the processes that are unique to these primary motives.
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Social Motives

Uncover how the need to interact and be accepted is intertwined with emotion and motivation.
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Theories of Emotion

Identify characteristics of each major theory of emotion, from James-Lange to Schachter's two-factor theory.
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Stress

Explore the impact of stress on emotional well-being.
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Developmental Psychology

How do humans continue changing or growing? This theme covers the maturation of different physical and cognitive abilities, as well as the many factors that can influence development. Review what you know about the different stages of development, based on the theories of thinkers from Piaget to Erikson.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Life-Span Approach

Examine the framework that underlies human aging.
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Research Methods

Discover the tools used by developmental psychologists to understand aging.
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Heredity-Environment Issues

Determine the role that genetics and the environment play in organismal development.
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Developmental Theories

Identify the various theories that make up developmental psychology
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Dimensions of Development

Differentiate between physical, cognitive, social and moral modes of development.
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Physical

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Cognitive

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Social

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Moral

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Sex and Gender Development

Characterize the role that sex and gender play in development.
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Major Historical Figures

Recognize important figures in developmental psychology and their contributions to the field.
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Personality

How do different psychologists and approaches describe the human personality, and what assessments can be used to measure and define it? What complex emotional and biological interplay dictates why people have the personalities that they do?

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Personality Theories and Approaches

Explore what is known about the makeup of individuals and the methods for determining personality.
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Assessment Techniques

Examine methods for evaluating individual traits and characteristics.
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Growth and Adjustment

Investigate how a personality changes and adapts throughout the life course of an individual.
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Major Historical Figures

Discover the individuals whose research paved the foundation of personality psychology.
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Testing and Individual Differences

What is intelligence, and how is it tested? How do we measure intelligence and other characteristics in a fair and unbiased manner? Learn about how psychological assessments evolved over time and understand what metric psychologists use to ensure these assessments can apply universally.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Standardization and Norms

Brush up on statistics as you analyze assessment scores relative to the normal curve.
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Reliability and Validity

Speculate the accuracy and strength of various psychological evaluations.
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Types of Tests

Explore the different assessment techniques used to identify differences amongst individuals.
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Intelligence

Determine the characteristics and means for evaluating intelligence.
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Major Historical Figures

From Binet to Spearman, get to know the psychologists who shaped the methods for assessing intelligence and individual differences.
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Abnormal Behavior

Learn how the DSM-5 is used to classify abnormal behavior, and delve into the positive and negative consequences of psychological diagnoses, as well as the shifting definitions of what constitutes a disorder. What are the different causes and types of disorders, and how does an official diagnosis interact with the law?

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Definitions of Abnormality

Develop a working definition for psychological disorders.
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Theories of Psychopathology

Determine how each theory attempts to explain and treat psychological disorders.
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Diagnosis of Psychopathology

Identify the symptoms and methods for diagnosing mental disorders.
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Types of Disorders

Analyze mental illness while you deepen your understanding of the various classifications and causes of each.
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Treatment of Abnormal Behavior

Tough love or unconditional positive regard — which is better for helping people get to a healthy place? When is it preferable to medicate? Psychologists have developed multiple empirically-tested approaches to treat different psychological disorders. Compare the treatment methods and assess different cases.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Treatment Approaches

Discover how various techniques are implemented in​ treating psychological disorders.
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Modes of Therapy

Evaluate the methods and outcomes of different forms of psychological care.
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Community and Preventive Approaches

Assess the role of culture and social context in preventing and treating mental illness.
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Major Historical Figures

Learn about the individuals whose research shaped psychological treatment and care.
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Social Psychology

How do people act in groups, and what other external factors can cause changes in behavior? Check your understanding of conformity, persuasion, obedience, and other ways humans can act in a group setting.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Group Dynamics

Identify the role of structure and interactions in the behavior of individuals within a group.
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Attribution Processes

Decipher how humans explain the occurrence of events through connecting the causes of behaviors and experiences.
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Interpersonal Perception

Determine what influences the beliefs individuals hold about each other.
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Conformity, Compliance, Obedience

Evaluate how individuals respond to group attitudes and figures of authority.
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Attitudes and Attitude Change

Assess how our thoughts form and how they evolve over time.
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Cultural Influences

Interpret how culture impacts group dynamics and behaviors.
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