General Chemistry

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Introduction to Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

What makes up the universe and everything in it? What differentiates materials and substances? Become adept at chemistry naming and formula conventions while acquiring basic skills to survive a chemistry course.

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The Atomic TheoryFree

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The Structure of the AtomFree

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Atomic Number, Mass Number, and IsotopesFree

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Molecules and Ions

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Chemical Formulas

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Naming Compounds

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Dimensional Analysis

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Density

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Stoichiometry

All matter must be conserved or transformed -- it is never destroyed. Based on laws, quantitative measurements, and chemical reactions, explore how to identify limiting reagents and calculate yields.

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Atomic Mass

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Avogadro’s Number and the Molar Mass of an Element

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Molecular and Formula Mass

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Mass Spectrometry

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Percent Composition of Compounds

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Experimental Determination of Empirical Formulas

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Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations

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Amounts of Reactants and Products

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Limiting Reagents

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Reaction Yield

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Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Many reactions occur within solution (typically the universal solvent of water) and help facilitate the interaction of compounds. Gain a cursory introduction about acids and bases, test your stoichiometry skills with a new trip to moleville, and learn why an apple turns brown in the air.

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General Properties

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Precipitation Reactions

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Acid-Base Reactions

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

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Concentration of Solutions

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Solution Stoichiometry

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Gases

How do the temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas relate? Explore the amazing world of gases by predicting measureable relationships and bursting balloons!

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Substances that Exist as Gases

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Pressure of a Gas

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Gas Laws

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Temperature

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Ideal Gas Equation

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Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

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The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

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Deviation from Ideal Behavior

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Energy

Why do reactions happen? Learn about how enthalpy, entropy, and free energy dictate the direction of reactions to proceed forwards or backwards. Define and apply thermodynamic laws to reactions and real-world situations. Find out more about catalysts and how scientists can manipulate energy barriers.

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The Nature of Energy and Types of Energy

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Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

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Thermodynamics

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Enthalpy and Free Energy

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Calorimetry

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Rate of a Reaction

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Rate Laws

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Relation Between Reactant Concentrations and Time

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Activation Energy and Temperature Dependence of Rate Constants

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Reaction Mechanisms

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Catalysis

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The Electronic Structure of Atoms

Visualize an atom. Most of what we commonly consider as the atom is actually the smallest part - the electrons! Explore the history of mapping the electrons from basic shells to quantum models.

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The Photoelectric Effect

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Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

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Quantum Mechanics

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Quantum Numbers

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Atomic Orbitals

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Electron Configuration

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The Building-up Principle

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The Periodic Table

The iconic periodic table emerged after centuries of discovery and work on the known universe. Learn the history, current organization, and periodic trends on the periodic table of elements, as well as some new additions to the family!

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Development of the Periodic Table

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Periodic Classification of the Elements

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Periodic Variation in Physical Properties

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Ionization Energy

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Electron Affinity

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Electronegavitiy

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Chemical Bonding and Molecular Representations

Sharpen your Lewis structures skills and gain a better understanding of molecular geometry, resonance, formal charge and polarity. Is this an alcohol or an ester? Learn to recognize functional groups and interpret other ways to represent molecules such as stick and condensed structures. Enhance your ability to use molecular orbital diagrams to predict magnetism, bond order, and bond strength. Finally, learn how to construct as well as recognize bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals.

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Lewis Dot Symbols

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Ionic Bonds

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Covalent Bonds

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Lattice Energy of Ionic Compounds

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Writing Lewis Structures

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Resonance and Formal Charges

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Functional Groups

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Drawing and Assessing Resonance Structures

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Molecular Geometry

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Electronegativity and Dipole Moments

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Valence Bond Theory

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Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

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Hybridization of Molecules Containing Double and Triple Bonds

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Molecular Orbital Theory

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Intermolecular Forces of Liquids and Solids

Ever wonder how a gecko sticks to the wall? Why frozen water expands? Dive into an exploration of the attractive forces between molecules, crystal lattices, and the changes in states of matter by reading phase diagrams.

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The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and Solids

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Intermolecular Forces

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Properties of Liquids

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Bonding in Solids

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Crystal Structure

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Phase Changes

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Phase Diagrams

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Physical Properties of Solutions

If you're not part of the solution, you're the precipitate. Continue learning about solutions including their behaviors and reactions. Solidify your skills by setting sights on solubility, measurements, and properties of solutions.

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Types of Solutions

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Molecular View of the Solution Process

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Concentration Units

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Effect of Temperature on Solubility

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Effect of Pressure on the Solubility of Gases

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Colligative Properties

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Chemical, Acid-Base, and Solubility Equilibria

Jump on the seesaw of chemical equilibrium to predict whether a reaction can proceed forwards or backwards. Expound upon your knowledge of acids and bases with titrations and buffer solutions. Practice expressing solutions as their component parts through equilibria expressions and equations.

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Concept of Equilibrium

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Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants

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Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Solution Equilibria

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Factors That Affect Chemical Equilibrium

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Buffer Solutions

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Acid-Base Titrations

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Acid-Base Indicators

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Solubility Equilibria

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The Common Ion Effect and Solubility

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Complex Ion Equilibria and Solubility

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Application of the Solubility Product Principle to Qualitative Analysis

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Acids and Bases

Gain more than a basic understanding of acid and base relationships by differentiating the relative strengths and properties of these amazing chemicals. Explore how acidity and basicity traits exist in other chemicals and the evolution of acid-base definitions.

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Brønsted Acids and Bases

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The Acid-Base Properties of Water

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pH

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Strength of Acids and Bases

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Weak Acids and Acid Ionization Constants

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Weak Bases and Base Ionization Constants

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The Relationship Between Conjugate Acid-Base Ionization Constants

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Molecular Structure and The Strength of Acids

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Acid-Base Properties of Salts

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Acidic, Basic, and Amphoteric Oxides

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Lewis Acids and Bases

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Thermodynamics

Why do reactions occur? The answer is thermodynamics. Learn how order and chaos interact to form beautiful relationships that make astronomical phenomena and nearly imperceptible molecular interactions possible. Calculate to predict Gibbs free energy to determine reaction feasibility and see these reactions would play out in labs.

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The Three Laws of Thermodynamics

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Spontaneous Processes

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Entropy

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics

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Gibbs Free Energy

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Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium

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Thermodynamics in Living Systems

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Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry

Revisit redox reactions in their applications within batteries and rusting. Explore how batteries are created and why certain metals are better for use in different types of cells. Then learn how to prevent further rusting of your car body.

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Redox Reactions

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Galvanic Cells

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Standard Reduction Potentials

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Thermodynamics of Redox Reactions

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The Effect of Concentration on Cell Emf

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Batteries

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Corrosion

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Electrolysis

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Electrometallurgy

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Nuclear Chemistry

One of the more commonly misunderstood topics, Nuclear Chemistry aims to explain the instability of various elements in the universe and how their unique behaviors can lead to major applications. Learn to differentiate nuclear fission and fusion, what these materials can be used for, and why we need to carefully handle these materials as carbon-based lifeforms.

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The Nature of Nuclear Reactions

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Nuclear Stability

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Natural Radioactivity

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Nuclear Transmutation

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Nuclear Fission

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Nuclear Fusion

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Use of Isotopes

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Biological Effects of Radiation

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