Read the following passage, which contains some underlined or numbered words or phrases. Each of the answer choices contains alternatives for the underlines; choose the one that fits best grammatically or stylistically. If you think the original is the best answer, choose Choice ‘A’, or NO CHANGE.
Questions about specific parts of the passage or about the passage as a whole are identified by numbers only, not underlines. These will be associated with specific questions.
Cheerleading a Sport?
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement in 2012 that stated the number of cheerleaders
from the age of six years and up have increased from around 600,000 participants to more than 3 million between
1990 to 2003. The number of cheerleaders has certainly grown since then. And because cheerleading has evolved
from leading crowds to cheer during sports events to a (5) most competitive year-round activity marked by increasingly
dangerous and complex acrobatic stunts, the associated injuries of cheerleaders have mounted at an alarming rate.
While female cheerleaders (and 96% of cheerleaders are girls) do not experience rates of injury higher than those
participating in lacrosse, basketball, soccer or gymnastics, those injuries are disproportionately catastrophic in nature.
The routine execution of complicated acrobatic feats, often involving tossing each other high into the air, or in building
lofty human pyramids, had resulted in a dramatic increase in the frequency of falls – sometimes from great heights –
and broken limbs, head, neck, and back injuries. It is not unheard of for cheerleaders to commonly suffer permanently
disabling or even fatal injuries.
New York State is been considering since 2009 joining the other 34 states that currently classify cheerleading a sport.
On April 29, 2014, the New York Board of Regents unanimously voted to consider “competitive cheer” a sport. This
new classification requires that cheerleaders engage in strength and conditioning programs, not only during the
competitive season, but during the preseason period. Cheerleaders practice time would be regulated, as well as the
training facilities they practice in.
Before the vote, cheerleaders had no limits on the length of seasons, weren’t required set practice time, or the time
between competitive events. No special training of cheerleading coaches was required, and participants did not
have access to onsite medical staff when needed. In addition, cheerleaders will now have opportunities to receive
scholarships and scholar-athlete awards. And that alone is worth cheering about.
Created for Albert.io. September 2014
And because cheerleading has evolved from leading crowds to cheer during sports events to a (5) most competitive year-round activity marked by increasingly dangerous and complex acrobatic stunts, the associated injuries of cheerleaders have mounted at an alarming rate.