Read the following passage, which contains some underlined or numbered words or phrases. Each of the answer choices contains alternatives for the underlines; choose the one that fits best grammatically or stylistically. If you think the original is the best answer, choose Choice ‘A’, or NO CHANGE.
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Man Grows New Noses
Alexander Seifalian, a professor of nanotechnology and regenerative medicine at University College in London,
is leading the global effort to grow ears, blood vessels, artificial tracheae and, yes, custom-made noses. Using stem
cells and a polymer material for the scaffolding, the research scientist builds a new nose for a cancer patient that
had lost his to cancer.
The process begins with harvesting stem cells from the patient’s fat cells. After several weeks, these stem cells are
ready for addition to the scaffold of the patient’s nose, which will later be covered by skin cells. Dr. Seifalian says,
“It’s like making a cake. We just use a different kind of oven”.
Dr. Seifalian uses a sophisticated machine to make three dimensional molds out of a spongy polymer to mimic the
exact shape and dimensions of the patient’s missing nose. After the stem cells are ready for covering the mold,
Seifalian’s team add a sugar and salt solution to the polymer lattice, for the stem cells to attach themselves to.
After a layer of stems cells (11) had grown over the mold, the nose is ready for a layer of human skin. The new
manufactured nose, is then surgically implanted into the patient’s forearm, so his skin will grow over it. After the skin
has completely covered the new nose, Seifalian and his team transplants the nose to its proper place on the man’s face.
Human-engineered replacement organs are on the horizon. While long-term studies of the viability or the replacement
organs, and the possibility of a higher cancer risks need to be assessed, Seifalian and his team are convinced that this
organ manufacturing process could be brought up to scale, and mass-produced commercially.
Alexander Seifalian believes the potential for lab-created organs is promising, and that after mastering simple
organs like noses, ears and blood vessels, there is no limit to what can be accomplished. Dr. Michelle Griffin, a plastic
surgeon working with Dr. Seifalian, said in an interview, “Scientists have to get things like noses and ears right before
we can move onto something like a kidney, lungs, or a liver, which is much more complicated.”
Created for Albert.io. September 2014
After a layer of stems cells (11) had grown over the mold, the nose is ready for a layer of human skin.