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After Extinction


An isolated forest area is dominated by seed-eating birds, fruit-eating mammals, and insectivore amphibians.

The island experiences a long period of drought, causing the extinction of all large animals except for the seed-eating birds. The plant population of the forest recovers with the return of the water sources.

Which of the following is the MOST likely outcome?


Bird populations that specialize in eating fruit and insects will evolve.


The bird populations will soon go extinct as well, as they are dependent on the ecological roles of the mammals and amphibians.


The mammals and amphibians will reappear.


The plant species will go extinct without the mammals and amphibians.