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Biotic and Abiotic Interactions, Cuckoo and Warbler


Moskt and Honza (2000) studied the interrelationship between the cuckoo (parasite) and Great reed warbler (host). In their research, ninety nesting sites were observed.

Of the data, 31 nests (34%) were unparasitized, 37 nests (41%) were parasitized only once, and 22 nests (24%) were parasitized numerous times. According to this research, several factors were identified as being most relevant in parasite behavior.

Which of the following identifies the abiotic factor MOST responsible for repeated parasitism?


Host and parasite habitats that exhibit significant overlap (access).


Host nest sites that are poorly exposed to potential parasites (i.e., under an eave of a bridge).


Host nest site situated close to parasite predator's perch.


Nest sites situated close to open water.