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Fish Antifreeze

APBIO-XGZ9N4

The average temperature range of the South Ocean near Antarctica is -1.9ºC to 2ºC. Remember that the ocean has salt in it which lowers the temperature that the water will freeze (-2ºC) .

However, this temperature range should freeze the blood of the fish that swim in the ocean near Antarctica. Scientists have discovered that these specific fish are able to produce proteins that act as a natural antifreeze.

How did these Antarctica fish obtain this ability?

"Notothenioidei." Wikipedia. Web. 31 Jan. 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notothenioidei

A

There was a genetic event that caused a mutation. The mutation created a DNA segment in the fish's genome that translated into an antifreeze protein.

B

There was a genetic event that caused a transformation. The transformation created a DNA segment in the fish's genome that translated into an antifreeze protein.

C

There was a genetic event called conjunction. The process of conjunction created a DNA segment in the fish's genome that translated into an antifreeze protein.

D

There was a genetic event called transduction. The process of transduction created a DNA segment in the fish's genome that translated into an antifreeze protein.