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Protein Synthesis and Antibiotics in Bacteria and Eukaryotes

APBIO-ISTWQN

Several antibiotics exert their action by targeting the unique protein synthesis processes in bacteria. They exploit the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation mechanisms to selectively inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria without affecting the eukaryotic host.

Ribosomes are a specific target of some antibiotics since there is a significant difference in size and structure between eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes; eukaryotic ribosomes consist of a 60S subunit and a 40S subunit, whereas prokaryotic ribosomes are composed of 30S and 40S subunits.

Tetracycline is a common antibiotic that works at the level of protein synthesis in bacteria.

Which of the following provides the BEST explanation for the effectiveness of Tetracycline as an antibiotic in eukaryotic cells?

A

Tetracycline can interact with any ribosome to stop translation of mRNA into a functional protein.

B

Tetracycline binds to the 30S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes and inhibits binding of tRNA, which functions to inhibit translation in bacteria cells.

C

Tetracycline binds to the 60S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes and inhibits binding of tRNA, which functions to inhibit translation in bacteria cells.

D

Tetracycline binds to the 40S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes and inhibits binding of tRNA, which functions to inhibit translation in bacteria cells.