The Psychology of the Modern Branches, Frank Nugent Freeman
1. Besides these differences due to age, there are
2. wide differences between individual children in this
3. as in other forms of ability. Some children are superior
4. in their writing ability to the average of several grades
5. above them, whereas others are equal only to the
6. average of several grades below. These individual
7. differences may be taken account of in several ways.
8. The ideal method would be to group children
9. according to their ability in each separate kind of
10. work, so that those of like ability are together and
11. that those who have reached a certain standard might
12. be relieved of further work in that subject. This,
13. however, is not possible so long as the rigid grade
14. system maintains, and the best that can be done is
15. to recognize the differences among children of the
16. same grade and to adjust the demand made upon
17. the different children according to their various
18. abilities. As was suggested above, each child
19. should be judged on the basis of his past performances
20. instead of by comparison with his classmates. In the
21. speed of writing it is very desirable to have as many
22. of the children as can comfortably do so engage
23. in rhythmic exercises to music or to time marked
24. in some other manner, but it is necessary that the
25. children who do not naturally fit in with this rhythm
26. should not be required to follow it.
27. In arranging the conditions so that the practice will
28. be most effective in producing improvement, it is
29. necessary to take account of the principles of
30. economy in effort due to the arrangement of the
31. periods of practice. It has been found by experimental
32. investigation that the length of period or the interval
33. between the periods of practice affects the rapidity
34. of learning. In the case of the development of a
35. motor habit, such as handwriting, the same amount
36. of time split up into rather short periods is more
37. effective than if it is all expended in long periods.
38. With the child in the earlier grades, ten minutes
39. is probably the best length of period, and in the
40. upper grades not over half an hour can be spent
41. to the greatest advantage.
1. L.P. Ayers: Scale for Measuring the Quality of Handwriting of School Children. Bulletin no. 113, Division of Education, Russell Sage Foundation.
2. Frank N. Freeman: The Teaching of Handwriting. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1914.
3. Frank N. Freeman: An Experimental Study of Handwriting. Psychological Monographs. 1914.
4. Charles H. Judd: Genetic Psychology for Teachers. D. Appleton & Co. (1903), pp.84-97 and chap. VI.
5. S.H. Rowe: Habit Formation and the Science of Teaching. Longmans, Green & Co. 1909.
6. E.L. Thorndike: “Handwriting.” Teachers College Record, Columbia University. 1910.
7. W.A. Whitehouse: “Correct Penholding.” The Modern Writing-Master. Boston, Mass. (1906), 1, 24-37.
Freeman, Frank Nugent. "Chapter One." The Psychology of the Modern Branches. N.p.: n.p., 1916. N. pag. Print.
The purpose of endnote 4 is to