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# Ways to Determine Electric Field

APPH12-COWVL3

A metal sphere is charged with a positive net charge, $Q$. A test charge of magnitude $q$ is placed a distance ${d}_{1}$ from the sphere’s center.

At this position, the test charge experiences an electrostatic force $F$ that is directed away from the metal sphere. Also, the metal sphere creates an electric potential ${V}_{1}$ at a distance ${d}_{1}$.

At a slightly larger distance from the sphere, ${d}_{2}$, the electric potential is ${V}_{2}$.

What are two calculations that can be used to determine the magnitude of the electric field at the distance ${d}_{1}$?

A

$\cfrac{F}{q}$

B

$\cfrac{F}{Q}$

C

$\cfrac{{V}_{1}}{{d}_{1}}$

D

$\cfrac{{V}_{2}-{V}_{1}}{{d}_{2}-{d}_{1}}$