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Velocity Graph: What is the Impulse?

APPHMC-JZEXP8

A $3\ kg$ ball moves along in one-dimension and then encounters an outside force that alters its velocity as shown in this graph.

What is the magnitude of the average force experienced by the ball between $t=1\ s$ and $t=3\ s$?

A

$-3\ N$

B

$-8\ N$

C

$-12\ N$

D

$-16\ N$

E

$-24\ N$