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Cynthia’s mother smoked heavily during her pregnancy. Cynthia also experienced varying degrees of early childhood neglect.
These circumstances could most likely result in
significant changes with Cynthia’s DNA structure, negatively impacting her development in adolescence.
the formation of epigenetic marks, which can alter Cynthia’s gene expression for certain traits.
gene mutation of an undesirable trait which could affect her development.
natural selection of some undesirable traits for Cynthia.
an alteration of Cynthia’s genome.