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AP® Psychology

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I Thought That I Already Learned That...

APPSY-T0HYUB

In any learning or conditioning, there are by-products of the learning process. One of these phenomena is referred to as second-order or higher order conditioning. Which of the following is an example of second-order conditioning?

A

A mule that is fed sugar cubes by Gina salivates every time that Gina walks by.

B

A dog that has received food every time a green light is flashed displays food-seeking behavior when a red light is flashed.

C

A coyote tastes spoiled meat that makes it nauseated will not approach that meat again.

D

Wild mice instinctively avoid predators, but domesticated mice show little fear of the domesticated predators they encounter, and may even join them in play.

E

A rabbit has repeatedly seen a picture of a predator paired with a bell displays a fear response to the bell as well as a flashing light alone that had been repeatedly paired with the bell.