AP® Psychology

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I Thought That I Already Learned That...


In any learning or conditioning, there are by-products of the learning process. One of these phenomena is referred to as second-order or higher order conditioning. Which of the following is an example of second-order conditioning?


A mule that is fed sugar cubes by Gina salivates every time that Gina walks by.


A dog that has received food every time a green light is flashed displays food-seeking behavior when a red light is flashed.


A coyote tastes spoiled meat that makes it nauseated will not approach that meat again.


Wild mice instinctively avoid predators, but domesticated mice show little fear of the domesticated predators they encounter, and may even join them in play.


A rabbit has repeatedly seen a picture of a predator paired with a bell displays a fear response to the bell as well as a flashing light alone that had been repeatedly paired with the bell.