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Edward Tolman created his theory of latent learning through which of the following?
Seeing if a chimpanzee could figure out how to use a stick and a box to get food that was out of reach.
Timing rats trying to escape from a maze both with and without reinforcement.
Shocking dogs in a situation where they could not escape, then observing their behavior when escape was possible.
Putting animals in boxes with levers that reinforced or punished certain behaviors.
Listening to patients discuss their dreams.