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Drawing Conclusions: Smokers

APSTAT-EMWAK2

A researcher decided to analyze the weights of smokers and non-smokers.

Suppose a random sample of $100\text{ smokers}$ averages $196.4\text{ lbs}$ with a standard deviation of $6.5\text{ lbs}$, and a random sample of $100\text{ non-smokers}$ averages $174.5\text{ lbs}$ with a standard deviation of $4.6\text{ lbs}$.

What conclusions could be drawn when comparing smokers to non-smokers?

A

Smokers tend to weigh more.

B

Smoking may cause weight gain.

C

Who weighs more is inconclusive evidence since this was not an experiment.

D

Who weighs more is inconclusive evidence since the sample sizes were too small.

E

Who weighs more is inconclusive evidence since the differences could have easily happened by chance.