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Biochemistry

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Lipolysis: Hormone Regulation

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The breakdown of lipids, particularly triglycerides by lipolysis, is regulated by several different hormones in response to cellular metabolic conditions and energy demands. A very simplified schematic of the breakdown of triglycerides in an adipocyte (fat cell) into free fatty acids and the backbone molecule glycerol is shown below.

Cruithne9. "A Diagrammatic Illustration of the Process of Lipolysis (in a Fat Cell)." Wikimedia Commons. N.p., 8 Dec. 2015. Web. 20 July 2016. (Modified by M. Rumpho-Kennedy).

Consider the effector labeled X in the above diagram as well as other effectors which may bind elsewhere (not shown in diagram).

Identify ALL of the following statements which correctly pair an effector with its MOST likely impact on lipolysis.

A

X = Epinephrine. Low blood epinephrine stimulates lipolysis under normal, healthy blood glucose levels.

B

X = Glucagon. Glucagon stimulates lipolysis under poorly managed Type 1 diabetic conditions.

C

X = Glucagon. Glucagon has no impact on lipolysis.

D

Insulin stimulates lipolysis under normal, healthy blood glucose conditions.

E

Low blood insulin and high epinephrine stimulate lipolysis.