In mammalian adipocytes, fatty acid biosynthesis (lipogenesis) occurs in the cytosol in a process similar to the reverse of $\beta$-oxidation (lipolysis), which takes place in the mitochondrion (see simplified biochemical schematic below). These two pathways need to be regulated relative to the energy demands of the organism at several levels.
A key regulatory and the first committed step of fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) producing malonyl-CoA. ACC is highly regulated by allosteric and hormonal effectors, balancing the needs of the cell for lipogenesis vs. lipolysis. Metabolic effectors include citrate, long chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFAcyl-CoA) molecules, and malonyl-CoA.
ACC is also regulated by covalent modification; Ser phosphorylation inactivates the enzyme. By influencing the phosphorylation state of ACC, glucagon, epinephrine (adrenalin) and insulin influence lipogenesis vs. lipolysis.
Examine the biochemistry of lipogenesis vs. lipolysis in the above schematic relative to the regulatory information provided above.
Then, identify ALL of the following statements which CORRECTLY describe the impact of a particular effector on these processes.