Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Separating the Cell Membrane


During lab, a student is asked to rapidly freeze then fracture a cell membrane. The student finds that the cell membrane breaks along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer.

The student is able to conclude that


the cell membrane is weakest along the middle due to the properties of the hydrophobic lipid region.


the cell membrane's phosphate content freezes quickly and causes the fracturing to occur.


the integral proteins spanning the cell membrane are too weak to hold the cell membrane together.


rapid freezing practices in the laboratory setting will cause most molecules to dissociate their bonds and break.