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Active Transporters on the Membrane


Active transporters are plasma membrane proteins that create and maintain concentration gradients for specific ions across the neuronal membrane. These concentration gradients drive ion fluxes through open ion channels to create electrical signals in neurons.

Among these active transporters, the most important one is the ${ Na }^{ + }$ transporter or pump.

Which of the following is CORRECT about the ${ Na }^{ + }$ pump?


The ${ Na }^{ + }$ pump uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to actively translocate sodium ions against its gradient.


The ${ Na }^{ + }$ pump carries sodium ions up its gradient while taking potassium ions down its gradient.


The ${ Na }^{ + }$ pump translocates three sodium ions in and two potassium ions out in each cycle of function.


The ${ Na }^{ + }$ pump is the only active transporter that regulates the extracellular concentration of ${ Na }^{ + }$ ions.