The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a classical invertebrate model for the study of learning and memory. Since the mid-1970s, a number of genes involved in the biological process have been identified as flies carrying those genetic mutations exhibit deficits in learning and memory.
Moreover, these genes are critical for the signal transduction mediated by cyclic nucleotide cAMP, which also play an important role in the memory formation of mammals.
For example, the dunce gene encodes a phosphodiesterase that
The rutagaba gene encodes an adenylyl cyclase that converts
The amnesiac gene encodes a peptide transmitter that stimulates adenylyl cyclase.