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Drawing Inferences - By-Product Mutualism


Fishy Cooperation - Frans B. M. de Waal

De Waal, Frans B. M. "Fishy Cooperation." PLOS Biology (2006): n. pag. Web. 19 Mar. 2016.

In lines 29-31:

Given that the cooperative hunting increases capture success for each of the two predators, and that they don’t share with each other but swallow the prey whole, their behavior seems a form of by-product mutualism.

In this sentence, "by-product mutualism" is defined as


a relationship which entails each party working towards different individual rewards.


a relationship which allows both parties to achieve rewards without sacrificing anything for the other.


a relationship which allows both parties to achieve rewards, but one party achieves more.


a relationship which requires each party to obtain a by-product that is specific to its needs.