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All of the following were outcomes or impacts of Mustafa Kemal, or Ataturk’s, modernization of Turkey during the Interwar Years EXCEPT:
Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate and transition to a secular state.
Adoption of Western-style medicine to replace superstition and herbal medicines and potions.
Establishment of universal suffrage rights.
The rise of Pan-Arabism across the Middle East.
The replacement of law system based on Shari’a with a new civil law code.