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The Metamorphosis

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Translation

METAMO-CIJSNC

At the end of the chapter, the narrator states that Gregor's father "had only the fixed idea" that Gregor had to return to his room:

He would never have allowed the complicated preliminaries Gregor needed to go through in order to stand up on one end and perhaps in this way fit through the door. Instead he drove Gregor on, as if there were no obstacle, with exceptional loudness."

The translator of the Bantam Classic Edition notes that the original German phrase for 'instead' -- sondern -- can also be translated to mean 'perhaps.' The dual meaning helps to

A

Emphasize the choices available to Gregor's father

B

Foreshadow the ending of the book

C

Comment on the choice the father makes to act with brutality

D

Alter our perception of Gregor

E

Suggest Gregor's disdain and contempt for his father