Immunology

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Immune System Overview

The immune system is an intricate network of cells, tissues, and organs that defends against infection and disease-causing agents. Familiarize yourself with the history and foundations of immunology.

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History of Immunology

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Immune System Cells

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Hematopoeisis

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Primary Lymphoid Organs

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Secondary Lymphoid Organs

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Receptors and Signaling

Delve into the major signaling pathways and receptors in the immune system. Why are these so crucial, and what occurs when these pathways are disrupted? Explore cytokines, the critical signaling molecules, and their important protein subset, the chemokines, which are responsible for attracting white blood cells to sites of infection.

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Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Receptor-Ligand Interations

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Signaling Pathways

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Antibody Structure and Function

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Cytokines and Chemokines: Properties

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Innate Immunity

Investigate the anatomical and cellular defense mechanisms that protect the body from foreign antigens. How are innate immune responses induced and then regulated? How does innate immunity compare, contrast, and work with its counterpart, adaptive immunity?

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Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Induced Cellular Innate Responses

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Inflammatory Responses

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Pattern Recognition Receptors

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The Complement System

Study the complement system, in which a network of proteins aid antibodies in destroying and removing foreign antigens from the body. Why are these proteins activated, and how are they regulated? How do some microbes still manage to undermine the complement system?

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Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Major Pathways of Complement Activation

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Functions

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Complement Deficiencies

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The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Antigen Presentation

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is composed of a set of genes that code for cell surface proteins that assist the immune system in recognizing antigens. Antigen presentation is the MHC-mediated process by which macrophages and other cells capture antigens. How does the MHC get expressed and function? What are the pathways of antigen processing and presentation?

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Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

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Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Structure and Function of MHC Molecules

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Organization and Inheritance of MHC

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Role of the MHC and Expression Patterns

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Endogenous Pathways of Antigen Processing and Presentation

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Cross-Presentation of Exogenous Antigens

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T-Cell Development, Activation, Differentiation, and Memory

A T-cell is a type of white blood cell that is uniquely described by a T-cell receptor on the cell surface and is developed in the thymus gland. Discover how T-cells are developed, activated, and differentiated from other white blood cells.

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Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Early Thymocyte Development

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Positive and Negative Selection

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Lineage Commitment

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Exit from Thymus and Final Maturation

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Mechanisms for Self-Tolerance

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Apoptosis

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T-Cell Activation and the Two-Signal Hypothesis

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T-Cell Differentiation

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T-Cell Memory

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B-Cell Development, Activation, Differentiation, and Memory Generation

A B-cell is a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies and is developed in the bone marrow. Examine how B-cells are developed, activated, and differentiated from other white blood cells. How do T- and B-cells compare and contrast, and how do they work together and independently?

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Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

B-Cell Development in Bone Marrow

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Class Switch

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T-Dependent B-Cell Responses

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Effector and Immune Responses

Dig into the role that effector B- and T-cells play in immune responses. How do immune cells function in the various stages of immune response?

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Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Antibody-Mediated Effector Functions

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Cell-Mediated Effector Responses

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Immune Cell Behavior during Adaptive Immune Response

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Immune Cell Behavior in Peripheral Tissues

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Allergy, Hypersensitivities, and Chronic Inflammation

Scrutinize the negative responses in the immune system: allergy, the four types of hypersensitivity, and chronic inflammation. Why do these occur, and how do they manifest with varied severity?

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions

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Type II Hypersensitivity Reactions

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Type III Hypersensitivity Reactions

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Type IV Hypersensitivity Reactions

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Chronic Inflammation

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Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency Disorders

Which disorders and diseases occur due to autoimmunity, when the immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, or due to immunodeficiency, when the immune system's normal function is mutated or missing? How do these range in severity, and which treatment options are available?

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Autoimmunity

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Transplantation Immunology

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Infectious Diseases and Vaccines

Dissect infectious diseases. How are they initially barred from the body, how do they manifest with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms, and how can they be prevented via vaccines? Which emerging infectious diseases should we be aware of, and how can their spread be combated?

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Barriers to Infection and Innate Responses

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Infections

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Vaccines

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Tumor Immunology

How does the immune system function in a body with cancer? Look into how malignant cells are transformed in the various types of cancer and the emerging field of treatments in cancer immunotherapy.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Tumor Antigens

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Mucosal Immunity

Mucosal immunology involves the immunity of the body's mucous membranes. Probe how the microbiota live in the mucosal (and other) tissues affect immunity. Dive into how maternal-fetal immune development is impacted by mucosal immunity.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Mucosal Tissues and Commensal Microbiota

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Role of Microbiota in Immune System Development

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Immune Responses in Mucosal Tissues

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Maternal-Fetal Immune Development

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Experimental Systems and Methods

How is the immune system studied in the laboratory? In this concluding theme, investigate the lab techniques used to clarify the body's immune function and pathways. These methods have been used to develop treatments and test for mutations and diseases.

CompletionAccuracy

Accuracy is based on your most recent attempt.

Status

Your status is based on your weighted accuracy which accounts for the difficulty of the questions.

Your weighted accuracy is based on your most recent attempts compared to everyone else’s first attempts.

Re-answering questions correctly will improve your weighted average status.

Antibody Generation

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Immunoprecipitation-Based Techniques

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Antibody Assays

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Flow Cytometry

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