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The adaptive immune system is often referred to as the “acquired immune system.” This system forms part of the overall immune system response that is built from highly specialized cells (e.g., T- and B-cells) and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogen growth.

In vertebrate animals, the adaptive immune system is one of the two main strategies used to counter pathogen attack: humoral and cell-mediated responses.

The adaptive immune system is highly specific to a particular pathogen. Adaptive immunity typically provides long-lasting protection, destroys invading pathogens and any toxic molecules they produce and remembers the pathogen should it be encountered in the future.

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All of the following statements accurately describe the actions of the third line of defense (i.e., adaptive immunity) EXCEPT


antigens from the virus are accepted by globular immunoglobulins (AKA antibodies).


the B cells either change into memory B cells, or create plasma cells that secrete the newly formed antigens.


upon the second infection, when the identical viral antigens are present, the plasma cells recognize this virus. This causes a much larger response from the memory B cells compared to the first response.


since there was a much larger response from the memory B cells, this causes more plasma cells to be produced as a response. When there are more abundant plasma cells, more antibodies are then produced as a result of this.

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