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The electron transport chain (ETC) transfers electrons between molecules in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions to generate a difference in pH across the thylakoid membrane.

How is the energy generated through electron transfer used to establish the pH gradient?


From the formation of molecular oxygen through the acceptance of electrons at the end of ETC.


From water being split in Photosystem I.


By powering the movement of protons into the thylakoid space.


By the transfer of $CO_2$ into the stroma.

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