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Hemoglobin is a protein used by humans to carry oxygen in the blood. It is composed of four polypeptide subunits (two alpha and two beta subunits).

Sickle cell anemia is a disease caused by a genetic mutation that results in the amino acid valine being incorporated instead of glutamic acid at a particular position in the polypeptide chain of the beta subunits.

The consequence is that the hemoglobin proteins in people suffering from sickle cell anemia fold in such a way that their ability to carry oxygen is drastically reduced.

Based on this information, one can conclude that sick-cell hemoglobin proteins display


altered primary and secondary structure but not tertiary or quaternary structure.


altered primary and tertiary structure but not secondary or quaternary structure.


altered tertiary and quaternary structure but not primary or secondary structure.


altered primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.

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