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A study team investigated stomatal density of different species of leaves. The data they collected are shown in the table.

Which of the following identifies the type of environment in which the Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) evolved?

Species Stomatal Density (stomata/mm$^2$) $\quad$ Stomatal Density (stomata/mm$^2$) $\quad$
Upper epidermis Lower epidermis
Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) 0 0
Giant Salvinia (Salvinia molesta) 36 0
American aspens (Populus tremuloides) 0 74

This plant evolved on top of the water. The lack of stomata on the lower epidermis indicates gas exchange only occurs on the surface of the leaf.


This plant evolved in a dry environment. The lack of stomata is an adaptation to an arid climate, to prevent photorespiration.


This plant evolved in an aquatic environment. The lack of stomata on the leaf is due to the lack of gas exchange.


This plant evolved in an arid climate. The presence of stomata on the underside of the leaf prevent water loss through transpiration.

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