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Diamagnetic atoms or ions contain no unpaired electrons. By having an equal number of up and down spinning electrons, diamagnetic species are not attracted to a magnetic field. Using this information and your understanding of atomic models, answer the following question.

Which of the following species is diamagnetic, and could this property be understood by the classical shell model and/or the quantum-mechanical model of the atom?

A

$Al^{3+}$

Quantum mechanical model.

B

$Fe^{3+}$

Both models.

C

$V^{3+}$

Classical shell model.

D

$Gd^{3+}$

Quantum mechanical model.

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