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Consider a lab in which a hydrate is heated to determine the waters of hydration.

Which of the following errors would increase the calculated number of waters of hydration?


Touching the crucible and leaving fingerprints after heating (but before the final weighing).


Incomplete heating (not heating until a constant mass is obtained).


The hydrate sample was contaminated with another ionic substance that has a melting point much higher than 100 degrees Celsius.


While transferring the crucible containing the anhydrous material to the balance for massing, the crucible tongs touched the product, leaving some of the solid product on the tongs.

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