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Consider the following ionization energy data (kJ/mol):

Element Ionization Energy (kJ/mol)
$N$ 1402
$O$ 1314
$F$ 1681
$Ne$ 2081

$\ $

Which of the following is the BEST explanation for why the ionization energy for oxygen is the lowest for these elements?


Oxygen has additional electron-electron repulsions.


Shielding is higher in oxygen than the other elements.


Penetration of electrons to the nucleus is high in oxygen.


Effective nuclear energy is low in oxygen.

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