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Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) come with environmental trade-offs.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of hybrid-electric vehicles?

A

Materials like lanthanum are required for the batteries of HEVs; these are scarce and must be mined.

B

HEVs are prone to frequent malfunctions because of their two engine systems.

C

Switching from internal combustion engines to HEVs will result in significant job losses in the petroleum sector.

D

HEVs depend on hydrogen fuel cells, and the infrastructure for hydrogen fuel stations is extremely limited.

E

HEVs will increase the demand for electricity production.

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