Jules Ferry, Speech Before the National Assembly, July 28, 1883
At this time, as you know, a warship cannot carry more than fourteen days’ worth of coal, no matter how perfectly it is organized, and a ship which is out of coal is a derelict on the surface of the sea, abandoned to the first person who comes along. Thence the necessity of having on the oceans provision stations, shelters, ports for defense and revictualling. [Applause at the center and left. Various interruptions.]
And it is for this that we need Tunisia, for this that we needed Saigon and the Mekong Delta, for this that we need Madagascar, that we are at Diego-Suarez and Vohemar [two Madagascar ports] and will never leave them! [Applause from a great number of benches.] Gentlemen, in Europe as it is today, in this competition of so many rivals which we see growing around us, some by perfecting their military or maritime forces, others by the prodigious development of an ever growing population; in a Europe , or rather in a universe of this sort, a policy of peaceful seclusion or abstention is simply the highway to decadence? Nations are great in our times only by means of activities which they develop; it is not simply “by the peaceful shining forth of institution” [Interruptions on the extreme left and right] that they are great at this hour.
Jules Ferry, "Ferry's Speech to the French National Assembly, July 28, 1883." Nationalism, Industrialization, and Democracy, 1815-1914. Ed. Thomas Garden Barnes and Gerald D. Feldman. Lanham: University Press of America, 1980. 273-75. Print.
According to Ferry, which of the following was necessary for continued development of French industry and national defenses?