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Jules Ferry, 1884

Gentlemen, we must speak more loudly and more honestly! We must say openly that indeed the higher races have a right over the lower races .... I repeat, that the superior races have a right because they have a duty. They have the duty to civilize the inferior races .... In the history of earlier centuries these duties, gentlemen, have often been misunderstood; and certainly when the Spanish soldiers and explorers introduced slavery into Central America, they did not fulfill their duty as men of a higher race .... But, in our time, I maintain that European nations acquit themselves with generosity, with grandeur, and with sincerity of this superior civilizing duty.

“On French Colonial Expansion” a speech before the French Chamber of Deputies, March 28, 1884, by Jules Ferry (1832-1893).

Ferry’s argument in the above passage MOST clearly supports which of the following ideologies?


The morality of exploiting the lesser races.


Social Darwinism.


The cultural superiority of the higher races.



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