Matthew Hedstrom, 2015
The tension between autonomy and expertise had been, at a basic level, fundamental to the Protestant experience itself from the Reformation forward, as the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers, increasing literacy, and vernacular translations of the Bible undermined the clerical caste's monopoly on spiritual authority.
Hedstrom, Matthew. The rise of liberal religion: book culture and American spirituality in the twentieth century. New York: Oxford U Press, 2015. Print.
The views expressed in the excerpt above are best seen as evidence of which of the following in European society during the Reformation?