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Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, 1651

...Tenthly, is annexed to the sovereignty the choosing of all counsellors, ministers, magistrates, and officers, both in peace and war. For seeing the sovereign is charged with the end, which is the common peace and defense, he is understood to have power to use such means as he shall think most fit for his discharge.

Eleventhly, to the sovereign is committed the power of rewarding with riches or honour; and of punishing with corporal or pecuniary punishment, or with ignominy, every subject according to the law he hath formerly made; or if there be no law made, according as he shall judge most to conduce to the encouraging of men to serve the Commonwealth, or deterring of them from doing disservice to the same.

"Chapter XVIII Of the Rights of Sovereigns by Institution." The Broadview Anthology of Seventeenth-Century Verse & Prose. Ed. Alan Rudrum, Joseph Black, and Holly Faith Nelson. Vol. 2. Canada: Broadview, 2001. 150-54. Print.

Jean Rousset de Missy, Life of Peter the Great, c. 1730

The tsar labored at the reform of fashions, or, more properly speaking, of dress. Until that time the Russians had always worn long beards, which they cherished and preserved with much care, allowing them to hang down on their bosoms, without even cutting the moustache... From the reform in beards we may pass to that of clothes. Their garments, like those of the Orientals, were very long, reaching to the heel. The tsar issued an ordinance abolishing that costume, commanding all the boyars [i.e., the nobles] and all those who had positions at court to dress after the French fashion, and likewise to adorn their clothes with gold or silver according to their means. As for the rest of the people, the following method was employed. A suit of clothes cut according to the new fashion was hung at the gate of the city, with a decree enjoining upon all except peasants to have their clothes made on this model, upon penalty of being forced to kneel and have all that part of their garments which fell below the knee cut off, or pay two grives every time they entered the town with clothes in the old style. Since the guards at the gates executed their duty in curtailing the garments in a sportive spirit, the people were amused and readily abandoned their old dress, especially in Moscow and its environs, and in the towns which the tsar often visited.

De Missy, Jean Rosset. "Life of Peter the Great, C. 1730." Readings in European History. Ed. James Harvey Robinson. Vol. 2. Boston: Ginn, 1906. 303-12. Print.

Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the passages?


Hobbes, as an early Enlightenment figure, would have rejected Peter the Great's application of monarchical power in 18th century Russia.


Peter the Great instituted the type of autocratic rule that Hobbes believed was essential to harmonious human societies, down to the tsar setting fashion standards for his subjects.


Enlightened despots such as Joseph II and Peter the Great adopted only the foreign policy proscriptions of Enlightenment figures such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.


As a passionate defender of secularism within European states, Hobbes would have favored regulating the dress of the clergy but not the rest of the Russian population.

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