Francesco Petrarca, Letter to Titus Livy
I should wish (if it were permitted from on high) either that I had been born in thine age or thou in ours; in the latter case our age itself, and in the Former l personally should have been the better For it...For the sake of seeing thee I should have gone not merely to Rome, but indeed, from either Gaul or Spain I should have Found my way to thee as far as India. . . .
We know that thou didst write one hundred and Forty-two books on Roman affairs... Often I am ﬁlled with bitter indignation against the morals of today, when men value nothing except gold and silver, and desire nothing except sensual, physical pleasures. If these are to be considered the goal of mankind, then not only the dumb beasts of the ﬁeld, but even insensible and inert matter has a richer, a higher goal than that proposed to itself by thinking man.
Source: Petrarca, Francesco, and Mario Emilio Cosenza. Petrarch's Letters to Classical Authors. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1910. Print.
Petrarch's Letter to Livy reflects which of the following major developments in Europe during the 15th century?