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Which of the following describes an example of the free rider problem as it relates to public goods?
Rivers and lakes are often polluted because they are not privately owned.
Smokers in public spaces negatively affect the air quality of others.
An effective minimum wage in a perfectly competitive market leads to inefficient allocation of labor.
Tom bought a World Series ticket for $\$500$ even though he would have been willing to pay $\$2000$ for it.
People cannot be excluded from the benefits of national defense.