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A battery with emf of $12.0 \text{V}$ is connected to a single $20 \text{ ohm}$ resistor. While sending current through the resistor, a voltmeter is used to find the terminal voltage across the battery. The voltmeter reads $10.0\text{ V}$.

What can be concluded about the internal resistance of the battery?


The internal resistance is $1.0 \text{ ohm}$ because that is the difference between emf and terminal voltage.


The internal resistance uses only one sixth of the voltage supplied by the battery’s emf.


The internal resistance is $40\text{ ohms}$ because the internal resistance should always be more than the load, or external, resistance.


The internal resistance can be a variety of values because the experimental uncertainty of the voltmeter is $\pm 2.0 \text{ V}$.

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