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The equation for the period of a pendulum is:

$$T = 2\pi \sqrt { \frac { L }{ g } } $$

All of the following approximations are required to derive this equation EXCEPT

the mass is concentrated at the end of the string.

the angle of oscillation is small.

the string is massless.

the tension in the string is constant throughout the swing of the pendulum.

the gravitational field is constant throughout the swing of the pendulum.