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An adult subject is prompted by a researcher to examine an interesting series of pictures of animals incorrectly labeled with the name of another animal. The subject is instructed not to read the name of the animal, but to state the animal that is pictured. For example, if the word "Spider" is printed over a picture of a penguin, the subject should say "penguin." The subject is instructed to complete this task as fast as possible but was frustrated knowing the researcher's four-year-old daughter (who cannot read but knows her animals​ very well) outperforms the adult subject in a ​competition of naming the animals.

​This illustrates which of the following?


Stroop effect.


Hidden observer.


Deep processing.


Retroactive interference.


Phi phenomenon.

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