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According to research by Martin Seligman, dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks no longer tried to avoid them when the harness was removed.

Which of the following accounts for the dogs' refusal to avoid the shocks after the removal of the harness?

A

Extinction.

B

Learned helplessness.

C

Positive punishment.

D

Shaping.

E

Conditioned reinforcement.

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