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Mimi undergoes a classical conditioning session that teaches her to associate a bell with a mild electric shock. The training takes place in a red room. Robert Rescorla's contingency model of classical conditioning would explain why Mimi learned to flinch at the bell and not whenever she enters red rooms. What explanation uses Rescorla's theory?


Humans are biologically predisposed to associate sounds with physical sensations.


Punishment is not an effective form of feedback to form lasting associations.


Conditioning only occurs when one thing reliably predicts another, and the red room is not predictive enough of an electric shock to become a CS.


It is impossible to condition emotional responses such as fear.


Conditioned responses must use the same sensory pathway as the conditioned stimulus.

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