Edward Thorndike put cats in boxes that required them to find and push a lever to open the boxes to escape and eat tempting fish placed right outside the box. Thorndike's experiment led him to propose his "Law of Effect," which states that
if an animal's actions have no effect, it will give up.
reinforcement is more powerful than punishment.
only with time, not experience, does an animal have an "insight" to solve a difficult problem.
without a proper motivation, or cause, there will be no action, or effect.
behaviors that have a good effect will be repeated and behaviors that have a bad effect will stop.