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Young adults in a small town are convinced that age has something to do with whether or not the police will give a driver a ticket when stopped for a traffic violation. The table below summarizes police records from traffic violation stops during the previous year.

Driver's Age Ticket Issued Warning Issued Total
Under 25 24 18 42
25 - 45 42 37 79
Over 45 15 28 43
Total 81 83 164

Which of the following statements is FALSE?


It appears that whether or not a driver is issued a ticket depends on the driver's age since the age category of under 25 has the highest proportion of tickets issued.


Being under 25 does not appear to be independent of whether a ticket will be issued, because the probability that a driver will be given a ticket if they are under 25 is greater than the overall probability that a driver will be given a ticket.


It appears that whether a driver is given a ticket is dependent on the driver's age, since the probability of getting a ticket and being under 25 does not equal the probability of getting a ticket times the probability of being under 25.


It does not appear that being given a ticket is related to being a young driver because more than half of the tickets issued in the previous year were to drivers in the 25-45 age category.


We cannot reject the idea that the age of a driver is independent of whether the driver will get a ticket since a ${ \chi }^{ 2 }$ test of independence results in a $p$-value greater than $0.05$.

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