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Young adults in a small town are convinced that age has something to do with whether or not the police will give a driver a ticket when stopped for a traffic violation. The table below summarizes police records from traffic violation stops during the previous year.

Driver's Age Ticket Issued Warning Issued Total
Under 25 24 18 42
25 - 45 42 37 79
Over 45 15 28 43
Total 81 83 164



Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A

It appears that whether or not a driver is issued a ticket depends on the driver's age since the age category of under 25 has the highest proportion of tickets issued.

B

Being under 25 does not appear to be independent of whether a ticket will be issued, because the probability that a driver will be given a ticket if they are under 25 is greater than the overall probability that a driver will be given a ticket.

C

It appears that whether a driver is given a ticket is dependent on the driver's age, since the probability of getting a ticket and being under 25 does not equal the probability of getting a ticket times the probability of being under 25.

D

It does not appear that being given a ticket is related to being a young driver because more than half of the tickets issued in the previous year were to drivers in the 25-45 age category.

E

We cannot reject the idea that the age of a driver is independent of whether the driver will get a ticket since a ${ \chi }^{ 2 }$ test of independence results in a $p$-value greater than $0.05$.

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