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The 20 common amino acids in vertebrates can be catabolized to form six major products. The carbon skeletons of these catabolized amino acids can enter gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, or be metabolized completely to ${ CO }_{ 2 }$ and ${ H }_{ 2 }{ O }$ through the citric acid cycle.

The 20 amino acids can be classified as ketogenic (degraded to acetyl-CoA and potentially yield ketone bodies) and/or glucogenic (degraded to pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, fumarate and/or oxaloacetate and potentially converted to glucose). Five of the amino acids are both ketogenic and glucogenic; two are only ketogenic.

Using the information provided above and your understanding of the catabolism of amino acids, identify the following amino acids listed on the right as either ketogenic or glucogenic.

Ketogenic

Glucogenic

Lysine

Glutamate

Aspartate

Alanine

Leucine

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