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In the absence of DNA repair mechanisms, damaged cells will become senescent, undergo apoptosis or, in a worst-case scenario, continue to divide and transmit harmful mutations to daughter cells, which can lead to the formation of tumors.

There are three mechanisms for fixing single-strand DNA damage: nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR).

Which of the following statements is true?


NER is only utilized to repair UV-induced DNA lesions.


PARP inhibitors primarily block the MMR pathway.


NER is the only repair mechanism that can be transcription-coupled.


BER can only fix oxidized bases.

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