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Shown below is an outline of gluconeogenesis with the four enzymes used to bypass glycolysis, boxed. Cofactors, nucleotides and other small molecules have been intentionally left off the schematic.

Using the schematic and your understanding of metabolism, identify which of the following statements is UNTRUE regarding gluconeogenesis.

Unused0026 at English Wikipedia. Gluconeogenesis. Wikimedia Commons, 12 May 2008. Web. 22 Mar. 2016. Modified by M. Rumpho-Kennedy.


The three exergonic, glycolytic reactions that are bypassed in gluconeogenesis with different enzymes are hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.


Acetyl CoA and citrate activate gluconeogenesis, whereas they inhibit glycolysis.


Lactate, pyruvate and most amino acids can serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis.


Gluconeogenesis is localized mainly in the liver in humans.


Intracellularly, the reactions of gluconeogenesis take place in the mitochondrion and the cytosol.


The synthesis of glucose from pyruvate by gluconeogenesis requires a greater input of high energy (ATP + GTP) than does the glycolytic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate.

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